Fim da quarentena é aposta arriscada nos EUA

Texanos protestaram contra medidas restritivas já em abril

Nenhum estado americano atende às recomendações do governo Trump para afrouxar as medidas contra o coronavírus. Mas alguns governadores já começaram a levantar restrições. Especialistas alertam para riscos desta decisão.

Trabalho de casa, desemprego, aulas suspensas e proibição severa de ir a restaurantes – o coronavírus Sars-Cov-2 virou a vida cotidiana de cabeça para baixo na maior parte do mundo.

Nos Estados Unidos, o número de desempregados registra uma alta só vista durante a crise econômica dos anos 1930. Os pequenos empresários são os mais afetados. Nas últimas semanas, muitos cidadãos americanos manifestaram, com cada vez mais veemência, o desejo de que, finalmente, a vida pública volte a ter um pouco de normalidade.

O presidente Donald Trump apresentou um plano em três fases para afrouxar as medidas de restrição no país. Apesar de serem os governadores que têm a última palavra sobre a abertura gradual em cada estado, o plano elaborado por especialistas em saúde, como Anthony Fauci, epidemiologista-chefe do governo americano, inclui critérios que uma região deveria preencher antes do início da primeira fase.

Os critérios são apenas recomendações e não leis obrigatórias – algo visível, por exemplo, nos estados da Geórgia ou do Texas, que não atendem aos chamados “critérios de entrada” e, mesmo assim, estão começando a afrouxar as restrições.

Nenhum estado americano atende exigências para reabertura

Em 16 de abril, Trump apresentou o plano de reabertura gradual da economia em três fases, chamado “Reabrindo os Estados Unidos novamente”, em alusão ao seu slogan de campanha nas eleições presidenciais de 2016.

As diretrizes preveem a primeira fase de reabertura nos estados que registrarem queda no número de infecções pelo coronavírus num período de duas semanas seguidas. Além disso, é preciso haver testes suficientes para examinar todos os médicos e enfermeiros que poderiam ter algum tipo de contato com o vírus no estado.

Porém, até agora, nenhum estado americano apresentou queda no número de infecções por 14 dias seguidos. O número de óbitos pela covid-19 também não caiu, estacionando em cerca de 2.000 por dia.

“Não só não temos testes suficientes. Também não sabemos se os testes que estamos usando atualmente são realmente bons”, constatou Ashwin Vasan, médico e professor de medicina na Universidade Columbia, em Nova York. Para ele, afrouxar as restrições nos estados nesse momento é “perigoso e um pouco leviano”.

O governador republicano da Geórgia, Brian Kemp, enxerga a questão de forma diferente. Seu estado foi um dos primeiros a aliviar as medidas restritivas. Desde 24 de abril, cabeleireiros, massagistas e tatuadores estão de volta ao trabalho. A reabertura de restaurantes e cinemas seguiu em 1° de maio, ainda que de maneira reduzida. “Não podemos viver em quarentena para sempre”, disse um porta-voz de Kemps, antes da primeira onda de afrouxamentos.

Praia cheia de banhistas na Geórgia.Na Geórgia, acesso a praias foi liberado. Rapidez surpreendeu até a Trump.

A reabertura na Geórgia foi rápida demais até para Trump, que disse discordar completamente da decisão de Kemp. Por outro lado, o presidente americano não quis impedir o governador de afrouxar as medidas, e disse que Kemp “deve fazer o que acha certo”.

O estado não tem registrado mais alta de novas infecções, mas elas também não tiveram queda por 14 dias seguidos.

Em geral, Trump apoia uma volta à normalidade o mais rápido possível, já que o alto número de desempregados poderia colocar em risco sua eventual reeleição, no início de novembro. “Queremos reabrir nosso país”, disse o presidente em telefonema com os governadores no final de abril, de acordo com o jornal The New York Times.

No Texas, o afrouxamento também avança, com a permissão de amplas reaberturas pelo governador republicano Greg Abbott. Desde o 1° de maio, os texanos voltaram a ter autorização para fazer compras em shoppings, emprestar livros de bibliotecas e assistir a filmes em cinemas. Todos esses estabelecimentos, assim como restaurantes e museus, tiveram sua capacidade máxima de público reduzida a um quarto do que era antes.

Com 28 dias de duração, a quarentena no Texas está entre as mais curtas entre os 50 estados americanos. Segundo Abbott, as medidas “fizeram o que tinham que fazer e desaceleraram a taxa de crescimento da covid-19”. Mas, segundo o The New York Times, o número de infecções continua subindo no estado.

Número de mortes pode dobrar

Segundo Vasan, Trump e os governadores deveriam se perguntar se é realmente do interesse de todos os cidadãos que as medidas restritivas sejam afrouxadas substancialmente agora, sem medidas de proteção adicionais.

“De longe, não temos testes suficientes”, afirma o médico. “Por isso, uma reabertura seria mais segura se todos tivessem que usar máscaras adequadas”, sugere. O problema, porém, é que nem funcionários do setor da saúde têm acesso a máscaras suficientes.

Projeções do Centro de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças dos EUA mostram que, mesmo sob as fracas medidas de proteção no estado da Geórgia, o número de óbitos pode dobrar até o início de agosto, passando de 32 por dia, registrado em 1° de maio, para 63 no dia 4 de agosto.

______________

A Deutsche Welle é a emissora internacional da Alemanha e produz jornalismo independente em 30 idiomas. 

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