Usinas implantadas em Múquem do São Francisco farão a Bahia avançar na produção de álcool e açúcar

Vice-Governador, João Leão apresentando o projeto que vai tornar a Bahia um dos maiores produtores de açúcar e álcool do Brasil. (Foto: Luciano Barreto).

A Bahia terá um complexo com capacidade instalada de até 11 usinas produtoras de açúcar e álcool no município de Muqúem do São Francisco,  localizado às margens do Vale do São Francisco. A responsabilidade da implantação e execução são de responsabilidade de um grupo empresarial sediado em Pernambuco, apoiado pelo Banco do Nordeste. A previsão inicial é que depois de pronto o complexo possa gerar mais de três mil empregos diretos. O Vice-Governador da Bahia, João Leão, concedeu entrevista aos jornalistas Dilton Santiago, Luciano Brito e Valter Xéu. 

Image result for Usinas implantadas em Múquem do São Francisco - álcool e açúcar

Como surgiu a ideia do projeto de implantação de usinas produtoras de açúcar e álcool na região do Vale do São Francisco?

João Leão –  Começou a partir de um questionamento: Por que o álcool aqui nas nossas bombas custa 35% mais caro que em São Paulo, Alagoas e em Pernambuco? Juntamente com os técnicos da Seplan, começamos  a levantar os níveis percentuais de produção de açúcar e alcool em função do consumo no estado. A conclusão feita a partir desse levantamento é que o estado da Bahia absorve 1 bilhão de litros de álcool anidro (usado para combustível), uma demanda alta e que o leva a importar de outras regiões. Resolvemos nos aprofundar no assunto e fizemos um levantamento de toda a produção de cana-de-açúcar executada no Brasil inclusive na Bahia. No Brasil temos a produção de 76,90 toneladas, no Nordeste 49,36 toneladas por hectare e na Bahia 71,57 toneladas, na Agrovale (empresa modelo de beneficiamento de açúcar mais moderna do Brasil, situada em Juazeiro na Bahia), são produzidas 115 toneladas por hectare, a média total deles. O próximo passo foi identificar uma região onde pudéssemos implantar usinas de beneficiamento de açúcar e álcool que obedecesse os mesmos padrões de qualidade internacional praticados na Agrovale.

Aonde fica essa região?

Localizamos uma região altamente produtiva, conhecida como Muquém  do São Francisco, situado na microrregião de Barra a 38 km de Ibotirama e a 178 km da cidade de Barreiras. Já iniciamos o plantio de 14 variedades de cana-de açúcar, dentre esses 14 tipos de cana, identificamos uma variedade que vem produzindo 299 toneladas por hectare, a estimativa inicial é de que este canavial produza 320 toneladas de cana por hectare.

Um dos objetivo desse projeto é construirmos um complexo produtor de açúcar, etanol e bioeletricidade sendo que a primeira usina deverá ter o tamanho da Agrovale, inicialmente apenas para produção de álcool, no pico de sua capacidade produzirá álcool e açúcar. Em outro projeto no Baixio de Irecê planejamos implantar duas usinas de açúcar e álcool e na região de Garité estimamos a implantação de mais três usinas de açúcar e álcool. Temos ainda o projeto Coopxaba, onde temos condições de implantarmos mais duas usinas. No total, há possibilidade futura de construirmos até 11 usinas. Esses estudos se baseiam em empreendimentos que já estão sendo executados. Ou seja, aqueles com local definido, áreas adquiridas, licenciamento ambiental encaminhado e demais processos legais em andamento.

Esse projeto foi concebido na SEPLAN (Secretaria do Planejamento da Bahia), e vem sendo desenvolvido por um grupo empresarial de Pernambuco. Para baratear os custos planejamos uma usina “flex” um tipo de usina auto-sustentável, nos mesmos moldes de uma empresa que já vem operando no Mato-Grosso, como funciona: depois da colheita da cana-de-acúcar plantada  no terreno já preparado para produção de outras culturas,  produziremos  álcool de milho, então coletaremos o bagaço da cana junto com o bagaço do milho da mistura desses componentes surge o  sorgo, utilizado para baratear o custeio da alimentação do gado, o extrume do boi que é um excelente adubo, será reciclado em um biodigestor e convertido em eletricidade, o que os especialistas chamam de bio-energia. Essa cadeia gera um sistema de reciclagem cem por cento auto-sustentável.

 

De onde partiram os recursos para viabilidade desse empreendimento?

Isso é iniciativa privada. A operação é feita da seguinte forma: um produtor rural possui uma fazenda de 75 mil hectares, cuidando alí de 300 cabeças de gado, sem cultivar um pé de alfce, com baixíssima produtividade e altos custos de manutenção.  Ele é selecionado e se associa ao grupo econômico responsável pelo projeto e que entra com a estrutura, o Banco do Nordeste, avalia a fazenda como garantia e financia o projeto. Esse foi o modus operandi para a construção dessa primeira usina onde o Banco do Nordeste financiou 170 milhões.

Qual a importância dessas usinas para o desenvolvimento econômico da Bahia?

Ao longo das últimas quatro décadas, a Bahia se consolidou como uma das maiores redes de produção de etanol do Nordeste, Graças a Agrovale, sediada em Juazeiro, maior empresa produtora de açúcar, álcool e energia no estado, a produção sucroalcooleira se expandiu para cidades do interior baiano, que fechou o ano de 2017 com a produção de 48 milhões de litros de etanol. A construção desse complexo usineiro traz uma larga vantagem para a Bahia, uma vez que diminuirá a importação de álcool oriundo de outros estados, outro fator competitivo para o nosso estado foi a implantação dessas usinas na região do Vale do São Francisco isso é  bastante interessante do ponto de vista econômico, os projetos de irrigação viabilizam a produção de cana-de-açúcar na região e a possibilidade de utilizar também o modal de transporte fluvial reduz os custos logísticos, gerando mais economia.

Image result for Usinas implantadas em Múquem do São Francisco - álcool e açúcarJoão Leão com o empresário Sérgio Paranhos diretor de uma das usinas

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